The cardiac patient in Ramadan

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Ramadan, the 9th month of the Islamic calendar, when Muslims fast during the daylight hours to learn patience, self‑restraint, sacrifice, and, above all, God‑consciousness. During Ramadan, healthy Muslims, in all over the world, abstain from eating, drinking, connubial relationships, and smoking from dawn till sunset. Ramadan follows the lunar calendar and hence the fasting month is brought forward by about 10  days each year. This brings about a change of the season of fasting month in addition to the length of the fasting time which may vary from 11 to 18 h. During the Ramadan fast, Muslims eat two meals a day, one before dawn (Suhur meal) and the other shortly after sunset (Iftar meal). The change of dietary patterns and meal schedule is accompanied by changes in sleeping patterns.[1] This change in life‑style, in terms of obtaining the daily calorie intake via two meals with alteration of medication schedule or reduction in sleep duration, might affect patients with cardiovascular diseases  (CVD).[2] Muslims whose health is at risk are exempted from fasting. The Qur’an states that fasting during illness should be avoided.

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